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Sources: Southern U.S. City’s Hatred of Gamblers Culminates in Murder

Blacklegs, Card Sharps, and Confidence Men: Nineteenth-Century Mississippi River Gambling Stories, Ed. Thomas Ruys Smith, Louisiana State University Press, 2010.

Gambling in America: An Encyclopedia of History, Issues, and Society, William N. Thompson, ABC-CLIO Inc.: Santa Barbara, California, 2001.

Natchez Courier, July 13, 1835.

Niles’ Weekly Register, Aug. 8, 1835.

The Voice of the People (Warren, Pa.), “Mississippi Outrages,” Aug. 12, 1835.

The Watchman (Connersville, Ind.), “The Vicksburg Tragedy,” Aug. 8, 1935.

Vicksburg Register, July 25, 1835.