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Sources: Renowned Boxers Maneuver Into Gambling-Related Businesses

Boxing and History, “Viva Johnson: Jack Johnson in Revolutionary Mexico,” Feb. 9, 2017,

El Paso Herald (Texas), “Jack’s Moves Preclude Return,” Aug. 6, 1929.

Intermountain Histories, “The Moulin Rouge: A Symbol of Las Vegas’ Civil Rights Struggle,” Alan Mattay, February 2017,

Nevada State Journal, “Plan Started for Big Ring Event in Reno,” May 2, 1931.

Nevada State Journal, Advertisement for Buddy Baer’s, March 8, 1950.

Nevada State Journal, “Freddie’s Lair Without Permit,” Oct. 9, 1951.

Reno Evening Gazette (Nev.), “Race Meeting Set for July 1 For Thirty Day Period,” April 27, 1931.

Reno Evening Gazette (Nev.), “Track Clubhouse Complete and Ready for Meet,” June 25, 1931.

Reno Evening Gazette (Nev.), “Tax Commission Approves License,” March 31, 1950.

Reno Evening Gazette (Nev.), “Speedy Approval of Club Permits Given by Council,” May 10, 1950.

Reno Evening Gazette (Nev.), “Council Renews Gaming Permits,”  Jan. 23, 1951.

San Diego Historical Society Quarterly, “The Hotel Riviera del Pacífico,” Maria Eugenia Bonifaz de Novelo, vol. 29, no. 2, Spring 1983,

Satan’s Playground: Mobsters and Movie Stars at America’s Greatest Gaming Resort, Paul J. Vanderwood, Duke University Press Books: 2010.

Sistema Abierto de Educacion Tecnologica Industrial, “Historia Del Hotel Ex Hacienda Riviera del Pacifico,” Sept. 2011.

Texas Monthly, “And Still Champion,” Gary Cartwright, January 2005,

The Rise of the Biggest Little City: An Encyclopedic History of Reno Gaming, 1931-1981, Dwayne Kling, University of Nevada Press: Reno and Las Vegas, 2000.