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Sources: 5 Mobster-Gamblers Do Time in Alcatraz Prison

Alcatraz History, “James ‘Whitey’ Bulger,”

Black Past, “Ellsworth ‘Bumpy’ Johnson (1906-1968),” Elwood Watson, Feb. 13, 2008,

CBS San Francisco Bay Area, “Bulger’s New Prison Will Be No Match For Time On Alcatraz,” Aug. 12, 2013,

Celebrity Gangster: The Incredible Life and Times of Mickey Cohen, Brad Lewis, 2009.

Daily Capital News (Jefferson City, Mo.), “Carollo [sic] Goes Up River to Rejoin ‘Boss,'” Oct. 21, 1939.

Daily News (N.Y.), “Boss Criminal Gets 15 Years,” June 13, 1953.

Gangland Wire Crime Stories, “Frankie Carbo,” Gary Jenkins, Nov. 30, 2020,

National Archives, “Former Alcatraz Inmates List,”

New York Post, “Rise & Fall of The Harlem Kingpin Who Took on The Mafia—And Won,” Michael Kaplan, Sept. 23, 2019,, “New Evidence Shows Mob Connection to Alcatraz Escape,” Jeremy Campbell, Kristen Reed and Julie Wolfe, Feb. 7, 2016,

The Irish Times, “America at Large: When ‘The Nicest Killer You Could Ever Meet’ Ran Boxing,” Dave Hannigan, May 20, 2020,

The New York Times, “Frankie Carbo, Underworld Figure Once Known as the ‘Czar’ of Boxing,” Nov. 11, 1976,